Venezuela Geography and Economy



With a height of 979 m above sea level, the Angel Falls or Angel Falls are the highest waterfall in the world and one of the most recognized and revered symbols of Venezuela.

As a country located in South America according to A2ZGOV.COM, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is located north of Ecuador, on the northern coast of South America. The continental territory is between 0 ° 38´ 53´´ and 12 ° 11´ 46´´ North latitude and 59 ° 47´ 30´´ and 73 ° 23´ West longitude. It limits to the North, with the Caribbean Sea or Sea of the Antilles, with an extension of 2,813 kms; to the south, with the Federative Republic of Brazil with 2,000 km of border; to the east, with the Atlantic Ocean and the Republic of Guyana with which it has a 743 km border line; and to the west, with the Republic of Colombia in an area of 2,050 kms.

Its continental shelf is located to the north and northeast of the country, it covers approximately 18% of the total continental surface with a maritime presence of 860,000 km2. In general, it comprises a wide coastal strip of low relief, between 0 and 100 meters above sea level. It is located between the Caribbean Sea and the Cordillera de la Costa. It has three major widened depressions: Lake Maracaibo (to the west), the Unare Depression (to the extreme central northeast) and the Orinoco Delta region (to the east) of lowlands and boggy lands. In the coastal area are the most important ports in the country: La Guaira, Maracaibo, Puerto Cabello and Puerto la Cruz.

These extensive territories are expressed in a compact continental surface, whose maximum distance is 1,493 km, in an East-West direction and 1,271 km, in a North-South direction, which contributes to facilitating integration and internal cohesion. It is articulated with wide coastlines, which reach a 2,183 km long maritime front in the Caribbean Sea, from Castilletes to the Promontory of Paria; It is irregular in shape and is made up of numerous gulfs and bays, among which are the Triste and Cariaco gulfs and more than 314 islands, cays and islets of Venezuelan sovereignty that reach the island of Aves from the north.

Territorial political division

State Capital Population
(in thousands)
Surface Region
Amazon Puerto Ayacucho 149,811 180,145 km² Guyana Region
Anzoátegui Barcelona 1,654,323 43,300 km² Northeast Region
Hurry San Fernando de Apure 499,120 76,500 km² Llanos region
Aragua Maracay 1,852,266 7,014 km² Central region
Barinas Barinas 1,654,323 43,300 km² Northeast Region
Bolivar Bolivar City 1,604,021 238,000 km² Guayana region
Carabobo Valencia 2,531,376 4,650 km² Central region
Cojedes City of San Carlos 340,815 14,800 km² Central region
Delta Amacuro Tucupita 159,791 40,200 km² Guayana region
Federal Dependencies Managed from Caracas 2,294 342 km² Island region
Capital district Caracas 2,100,452 433 km² Capital Region
Falcon Santa Ana de Coro 960,478 24,800 km² Central-Western Region
Guarico San Juan de los Morros 796,440 64,986 km² Northeast Region
Lara Barquisimeto 1,999,358 19,800 km² Central-Western Region
Merida Merida 895,697 11,300 km² Andean region
Miranda Los Teques 2,945,493 7,950 km² Capital Region
Monagas Maturin 999,533 28,930 km² North – Eastern Region
New Sparta The assumption 508,579 1,150 km² Island region
Portuguese Guanare 919,196 15,200 km² Central-Western
Sucre Cumana 945,608 11,800 km² North – Eastern Region
Tachira San Cristobal 1,225,562 11,100 km² Andean region
Trujillo Trujillo 747,100 7,400 km² Andean region
Vargas La Guaira 337,825 1,496 km² Capital Region
Yaracuy San Felipe 640,163 7,100 km² Central-Western Region
Zulia Maracaibo 3,906,862 63,100 km² Zuliana Region


Venezuelan economic activities are based on the use of rich and varied natural resources, especially hydrocarbons, supplemented with mineral resources, aquifers, soil, agriculture, fishing, forestry, fauna and flora biodiversity and tourism. They are mobilized and transformed by the active population, although it preferentially works in direct agricultural production activities and extraction of natural resources, together with industrial manufacturing activities.

At present, Venezuelan economic activity is mainly based on the exploitation of light, medium, heavy, bitumen and natural gas oil, with its derivatives transformed in refineries, cryogenic and orimulsion plants. Since the middle of the 20th century, there has been a tendency to diversify the exports of iron minerals, coal, cement, bauxite and non-conventional products, such as petrochemicals, metal manufactures of steel and aluminum, and agricultural and fishery products. Tourist activities are taking on increasing importance.

The country is transformed with the mobilization of its natural resources through the work of its economically active population, estimating that the labor force comprises 8,026,486 people, of which 7,347,515 are employed.

Better educational and job training levels must be increased to cover the high and sustained increase in the workforce. Venezuela could incorporate many more people to this work force, since 5,545,000 inactive people are recognized, aged fifteen and over, among which there are significant sectors of young people without studying or working, and inactive adults.

The role of population mobilization in economic activities is expressed in the distribution of the active population. In Venezuela, the current population distribution in labor economic activities is unbalanced, which hinders true modern development as tertiary sector activities are exaggerated. The high percentage of people dedicated to communal, social and personal services stands out, with 27% dedicated to commerce, restaurants and hotels; 22%, to transport, storage and communications; 6%, in financial establishments, insurance, banks, real estate and business services. In short, 61% of the employed population works in tertiary activities.

On the other hand, only 23% of the employed population works in secondary activities: 14% in manufacturing industries; 1% in electricity, gas and water; 8% in construction. In turn, the primary sector occupies only 16% of the working population: 15% in agricultural activities and 1% in hydrocarbons, mines and quarries.

Venezuela Economy