In this mountainous system the highest peaks of the Venezuelan relief stand out. It constitutes an extension of the Colombian Andes, which when arriving at the Pamplona Nudo (Colombia) bifurcate into two chains: the Sierra de Perijá and the Cordillera de Mérida or the Venezuelan Andes. The Andes Mountains penetrate Venezuela through the Táchira depression, from where it extends to the Lara state. In its center it is longitudinally divided by the Chama and Motatán rivers that run in opposite directions from their highest altitudes.
The highest peak in the country is located at its peaks: Pico Bolívar (5,007 meters). The Sierra de Perijá heads towards the Northwest and constitutes the western limit of Venezuela. The maximum altitude that it presents is the Tetari Peak with 3,750 meters.
The initial uplift of the Andes occurred in the Paleocene, disappearing and reappearing in the Cenozoic. This system constitutes a geological mosaic, where three types of rocks appear: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. The mountainous Block is abrupt and rises up to 5,007 meters, at Pico Bolívar. Presents high peaks, some with perpetual snow, remains of Glaciers, numerous lagoons, in addition to deep valleys where alluvial terraces of different levels and dejection cones abound, which occupy these valleys. The Cordillera de Perijá penetrates into Venezuelan territory from the Intermedio River, from where four Sierras can be differentiated: Motilones, Valledupar, Perijá and Montes de Oca.
They are extensive surfaces of almost flat relief, located in the center of the country, whose heights range between 500 and 200 meters above sea level. They cover an area of approximately 25% of the total area of the country. It extends over a length of 1,300 kilometers, from the mouth of the Orinoco, in the east, to the Andean Cordillera, in the west; from the foothills of the Cordillera de la Costa to the Orinoco. in this huge region are the oil sedimentary basins
This region extends like a wide avenue between the Andes and the Coast mountain range and the Guiana Massif. More than a quarter of the territory is made up of this kind of relief. It is the youngest land in the country, mostly formed during the Quaternary and even today, due to the collapse of the Apure Basin, sediments contributed by the rivers that descend from the mountain range continue to be deposited.
Its heights range between 200 and 500 meters above sea level. It is not a uniform plain, since within it there are some physiographic accidents, such as tables, galleys, undulations, dunes, banks and estuaries.
The Llanos have been classified into High and Low. This distinction is established through the 200-meter curve, which roughly marks the separation between the plains that are flooded to the south, and those that are free of floods to the north. Likewise, this classification has a topographic connotation since in the High Plains there are undulations and the rivers are embedded with well-defined banks, while in the Low Plains there are floods.
This physiographic unit extends over a large part of the Bolívar and Amazon States in an area of 423,000 square km, which constitutes 45% of the total surface of Venezuela, a country located in South America according to ESTATELEARNING.COM. The Guiana shield is made up of one of the oldest geological formations in the world.
In the extreme Southeast the physiography of the massif is characterized by the presence of imposing plateaus or tepuis that reach 2,275 meters of altitude.
To the north of the Guiana massif, some savannas appear, forming extensive strips with heights of 400 meters that support variable vegetation.
This region is characterized by presenting important mineral resources, among which are iron and bauxite. Another important contribution of the region to national development is the energy potential provided by the Caroní River through the Guri hydroelectric plant.
It is a group formed by mountains and valleys that limit the Southeast with the Cordillera de Mérida ; to the west with Lake Maracaibo and its northern plain and the Gulf of Venezuela and to the east with the Cordillera de la Costa. The relief in this area is not very high, with altitudes between 500 and 1,700 m.
The following mountain ranges are distinguished in the Falcón-Lara mountain system: Sierra de San Luis, Sierra de Buena Vista and Sierra de Baragua. The coastal portions comprise the plains of the north coast.
The Paraguaná Peninsula is made up of an island linked to the mainland by the Isthmus of Los Médanos. This is characterized by the presence of large sand deposits, with some xerophytic vegetation, which constitute the dunes or dunes.
It is an area of 32,000 square km. That is located in the East of the country between the lower Plains of Monagas, the Guiana Massif and the Atlantic Ocean.
It is a region that is in the process of consolidation of low height and little unevenness, which is why it is frequently flooded and invaded by the tides near the sea, with an abundance of lagoons, swamps, numerous islands and innumerable arms and streams.