Mexico Sights, UNESCO, Climate and Geography

Mexico is a large country in the south of North America in Central America. The official name of the country is United Mexican States. In total, Mexico consists of thirty-one states and the capital, Mexico City. Mexico is the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. More than 110 million people live in the country, of which almost 20 million live in the metropolitan area of ​​the capital. Mexico City has been in the top five of the largest conurbations in the world for years.

According to wholevehicles, Mexico has only been around since 1821, but the history of the country goes back much further. The country has been inhabited since early prehistoric times. About the twelfth century BC, Mesoamerica originated here. This cultural-historical area extends from Mexico to Nicaragua. Different cultures lived in this area in different time periods, but sometimes also next to each other. The best known of these are the Aztecs, Mayas, Toltecs and Zapotecs. The Maya in particular have left clear traces in Mexico.

Mexico, like the rest of the Americas, was discovered by Europeans at the end of the 15th century. In the early sixteenth century, the Spanish conquistador Francisco Hernández de Córdoba is sent to Mexico. After several years of unfair warfare, the Aztecs capitulated and Mexico became Spanish property. Western diseases brought by the Spaniards reduced the population of Mexico by 97 percent within a century.

Since the war of independence in the early nineteenth century, Mexico has been more or less an independent country. After the United States of America annexed Texas, the American-Mexican War broke out. However, the country did not regain its former territory. In the years that followed, several more wars and revolutions broke out. It has only been since the second half of the twentieth century that there has been some political calm in the country.

Today, the country suffers from extreme poverty, corruption and drug cartels.


The most famous sights in Mexico are without a doubt the Mayan temples. Throughout the country there are pre-Columbian complexes that are definitely worth visiting. The most famous Maya complex can be found on the Yucatán Peninsula, the Maya city of Chichen Itza. This ancient Maya city was founded in the tenth century AD. The Pyramid of Kukulcán in this city is one of the most famous structures in Mexico. The Temple of Coba, the Temple of Tulum, the ruined city of Uxmal and the historic city of Teotihuacán are other beautiful examples of Mayan culture.

Many tourists who come to Mexico are mainly here for diving. The beautiful underwater world off the coast of the Maya Riviera is unique. The Palancar coral reefs are considered by many divers to be the most beautiful in the world. The islands of Cozumel and Isla Mujeres are also known for their beautiful diving spots.

The Anthropological Museum in Mexico City is one of the most beautiful and most visited museums in the country. Other well-known museums in Mexico include the Museo de Antropología de Xalapa in Veracruz, the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Monterrey in Zuazua and Jardón, the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City and the Tijuana Cultural Center in Tijuana.


In total, Mexico has thirty-one inscriptions on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Except for a single entry, entries in Mexico can be divided into three categories. First the pre-Columbian cities. This includes the former cities of Palenque, Teotihuacán, El Tajín, Chichén Itzá, Uxmal, Monte Albán and Calakmul. These pre-Columbian cities were built by the various early Mexican civilizations, including the Maya.

The second category is the historic centers of some major cities in Mexico. The historic center of the cities of Mexico City, Xochimilco, Oaxaca, Puebla, Guanajuato, Morelia and Zacatecas. In some cases, the entire city is on the World Heritage List.

The third major category is the nature reserves in Mexico. The Sian Ka’an Natural Park, the El Vizcaino Whale Sanctuary, the Gulf of California Islands and Protected Areas, and the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve are on the list.

There are also a few monument zones on the list, such as the archaeological monument zone of Xochicalco, the historical monument zone of Tlacotalpan, the historical monument zone of Tlacotalpan, the historical monument zone of Querétaro and the archaeological zone of Paquimé. The petroglyphs of the Sierra de San Francisco and the prehistoric caves of Yagul and Mitla are also on the list. The list is far from complete, but there are too many inscriptions on the UNESCO World Heritage List in Mexico to cover them all in this section.


There is a great diversity of climates in Mexico from the tropical rainforest climate to the desert climate, it all occurs here. The tropical rainforest climate occurs in the central southern part of Mexico. The average temperature and average rainfall in this part of Mexico is much higher than in the other parts of the country. The other southern parts of Mexico have a tropical monsoon or tropical savanna climate. In the north, this climate changes into a warm steppe climate, eventually forming a warm desert climate at the border with the United States of America. The continental climate occurs in the higher parts of the Sierra Madre Mountains and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The more northerly coastal towns of Mexico have a warm maritime climate.

Tropical storms and hurricanes can occur in Mexico in the second half of the year. The coastal Pacific and Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea can both be affected by these storms. The Yucatán peninsula in particular is regularly hit. The average precipitation in Mexico varies greatly per region in the highest parts of the country, snow can occur regularly.


Mexico is in the south of North America or in the north of Central America, depending on which side you look at it. Mexico borders the United States of America to the north and Belize and Guatemala to the south. The country borders the Gulf of Mexico, the Yucatan Strait and the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The border with the United States of America is for the most part formed by the Rio Grande River. The borders with Belize and Guatemala are partly determined by the Río Suchiate, the Río Usumacinta and the Río Hondo.

Off the different coasts of Mexico are several islands and archipelagos. The islands of Cozumel, Isla Mujeres, Arrecife Alacranes, Holbox, Isla de Sacrificios, San Juan de Ulúa, Isla Guadalupe, Rocas Alijos, San Benedicto, Clarión, Isla Ángel de la Guarda, the Maria Islands, the Revillagigedo Islands and Tiburón belong to one of the most famous islands of Mexico. In addition, the two peninsulas Yucatán and Lower California belong to Mexico. The coastal region near Yucatán is known for its beautiful coral reefs.

In Mexico there is one large mountain range the Sierra Madre and three plateaus the valley of Mexico, Bajío and Bolson de Mapimi. The volcano the Peak of Orizaba is the highest point in Mexico at 5636 meters. This volcano is located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which also includes the Popocatepetl volcano and the Iztaccíhuatl volcano.

Large parts of the south of Mexico are covered with tropical rainforest, while in the north of the country there are deserts. As a result, Mexico has a very wide flora and fauna. The capital Mexico City is the largest city in Mexico. other major cities in the country are Guadalajara, Toluca, Puebla and León.

The most popular tourist destinations within Mexico are Cancun, Playa del Carmen, Cozumel, Cabo San Lucas, Acapulco, Puerto Vallarta.

Travel advice

For Mexico, non-essential travel to certain areas is discouraged. In particular, the state of Ciudad Juárez in northern Mexico is seen as very unsafe.

Mexico has been fighting a fierce drug war for years. This regularly results in fatalities. The various drug cartels not only hunt each other, but the local police are often the victims of this as well. There are regular civilian casualties in this war. The states of Estado de Mexico, Morelos, Michoacan, Guerrero, Baja California Sur and Norte, Sonora, Sinaloa, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas and Chihuahua are considered the most dangerous in the country.

In the states of Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas, tourists are regularly the victims of robberies and robberies. Especially in these states, but also in other parts of Mexico, it is not recommended to use public transport in the evening because the risk of robberies is greatest here. Tourists can be victims of so-called express kidnappings in the larger cities, especially in Mexico City. The victim is held hostage for several hours during which he is forced to withdraw money several times.

The volcano Popocatepetl regularly spews the ash from the area around the volcano is seen as unsafe. Mexico is regularly hit by tropical storms or hurricanes. In the area on the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, these can occur from June to November. In the area on the Pacific Ocean these can occur from May to November.

Hospitals in Mexico are of a very low standard. This is mainly due to the lack of staff and good medical facilities.

Travel documents

To visit Mexico you must have a passport that is valid for at least six months on the day of arrival. As a tourist you can stay in Mexico for a maximum of four months. At customs you have to fill in a forma migratoria para turista. This will be stamped by the customs officer if properly completed and put in your passport. Keep this well because you will need it again when you leave Mexico.

There is an import ban on fresh foods such as meat, vegetables, fruit and dairy products. No vaccinations are required for a visit to Mexico.

Info table

Capital city Mexico City
Phone (country code) 52
Internetdomein .mx
Language(s) (official) Spanish
Language(s) (colloquial) Spanish, Native American and English
Religion(s) Roman Catholic
Time zone(s) UTC-6, UTC-7 and UTC-8
Time difference summer In Mexico it is 7, 8 or 9 hours earlier than in the Netherlands
Time difference winter In Mexico it is 7, 8 or 9 hours earlier than in the Netherlands
Daylight Saving Time Control and
Currency Mexican peso

Mexico Sights