A very hard defeat, because the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848, not only confirmed the detachment of Texas, but also wrested Arizona, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico and parts of Colorado and California from Mexico., regions that, from the second half of the century. XVI, had gradually fallen under the jurisdiction of Spanish Mexico. López de Santa Anna was forced to leave the camp. He then managed to get himself named “perpetual dictator”, he was attacked by the liberals, at the head of which were figures such as Juan Àlvarez, Melchor Ocampo, Ignacio Comonfort, Benito Pablo Juárez; on 1 March 1854 they fixed the principles of their movement – called Reforma – in the Ayutla Plan and, having organized themselves militarily, they forced the dictator to surrender (14 August 1855). A renewal process began for Mexico. Settled in the government, the men of the Reforma began to implement their program, giving the country, on February 5, 1857, a liberal Constitution. The legislative work had as its object above all relations with the Church. Main measures were: the law of 25 November 1855 for the abolition of ecclesiastical and military courts; the law of June 25, 1856 for the release of manomorta’s assets; the law of 12 July 1859 for the nationalization of ecclesiastical assets; the law of 23 July 1859 for the introduction of civil marriage; the law of 4 December 1860 for the freedom of worship. These measures aroused the reaction of conservatives and the Church. In a coup enforced, the enemies of the Reforma conquered Mexico City and forced the liberals to flee. They managed to take refuge in Querétaro, installing a “constitutional” government chaired by the Indian Juárez. At the beginning of 1861 the reformists were able to return to the capital; but at that point an international intervention took place. Juárez enjoyed US support, conservatives and the Church were supported by Britain, Spain and France under Napoleon III. As the United States was engaged in its Secession War, the European powers (at one point, however, France was left alone) decided to act. Napoleon III engineered the creation of a Mexican Empire devoted to him and offered the crown to Archduke Maximilian of Habsburg, brother of Emperor Franz Joseph. In 1862 he sent an expeditionary force. Juárez had to take refuge on the border with Texas. Maximilian, protected by French bayonets, took possession of the throne in June 1864. The resistance of Juárez, however, defeated him. Having restored the Republic, Juárez restored the Constitution of 1857 and continued on the path of reforms. His disappearance (1872) created a void, which would soon be occupied by another “strong man”. In the meantime, however, the old factional disputes returned to the fore, weakening the liberals to the advantage of the conservatives. Furthermore, the law on the release of the dead man had proved counterproductive, as it had strengthened the already powerful landowners, through the possibility, for them, to buy other land properties. It was therefore easy for their candidate, the general Porfirio Díaz, ascend to the presidency of the Republic in 1876.
Guadalajara [g Adala xara], capital of the state of Jalisco, Mexico, to the west of the highlands of Mexico, 1 590 m above sea level (2,019) 1,500,000 residents.
Archbishopric; several universities, technical college; Museums, theaters, zoo. Trade center for western central Mexico and an important industrial location (textile and clothing, shoe, glass, paper, tobacco, chemical, metal, food industry, production of silver jewelry and tableware); important transport hub, international airport. According to estatelearning, Guadalajara is a center of Mexican folklore, v. a. of marijuana music. Thanks to its mild, dry climate, it is home to many retirees from the USA (especially on Lago de Chapala, south of the city).
The cathedral (between 1558 and 1616), a three-aisled basilica with six transepts and Gothic vaults, was rebuilt several times. The portals in the renaissance style are flanked by classical columns, inside paintings (among others by B. E. Murillo) and sculptures. The high baroque church of Santa Mónica (consecrated in 1723) has a richly ornamented facade. The government palace (Palacio de Gobierno, 1643–1774), a magnificent baroque building with a classicist influence, houses frescoes by J. C. Orozco in the stairwell and in one of the meeting rooms. The neoclassical Hospicio Cabañas was built in 1803 according to plans by M. Tolsa as an orphanage with 23 patios (UNESCO World Heritage Site); in a former chapel also frescoes by J.C. Orozco. The Museo del Estado de Jalisco has a.o. an archaeological collection, paintings, costumes and folk art. The Orozco Museum (former home and studio of the artist) counts numerous paintings and drawings by J. C. Orozco among his holdings.
The city was founded in 1531 under the name Espíritu Santo and laid out in a chessboard layout. In 1818, 1875 and 1932 earthquakes caused severe damage.