Espirito Santo prospered under the government of Luisa Grimaldi, widow of the concessionaire Vasco Fernandes and had 150 settlers, 6 engenhos, a lot of cattle and cotton. The Indians were very domestic, so that there was almost no African slavery. Rio de Janeiro, even though it had recently risen, already had 150 settlers, in addition to the servile population, and 3 engenhos; it also produced many fruits and vegetables, and fishing was profitable there; it had a Jesuit college, a House of Mercy and a hospital. In S. Vicente, if the cities of the coast entered a period of decline, S. Paulo de Piratininga prospered instead. Proof of the wealth of the northern captaincy is the fact that, at the beginning of the century. XVII, the sugar tax was raised to 30%, without any protest from the producers; which, among other things – according to the reports of the contemporaries Gabriel Svares and Fernão Cardim, from whom we also have the reported statistical information – had made Pernambuco and Bahia two cities of luxury and pleasure. The cultural conditions, at least in the most important harbor offices, were less serious than in the other regions of South America, thanks to the numerous Jesuit colleges: the important ones in Bahia, Olinda and Rio de Janeiro. Rela ç ão do Brazil, later abolished in 1626. On the one hand it was a good, guaranteeing better private rights; but he also cheated the procedure very much, so that the ancient summary processes became complicated and very long, and caused an incredible increase in the class of lawyers, procurators, scribes and fixers of all kinds, ready to quibble in the interpretation and application of the ordena ç ões filippinas, reform of the 5 books of the manuelinas. Yet, they made their contribution to the general culture of the country and prepared the legal basis for future revolutions.
According to THENAILMYTHOLOGY, the English already had commercial relations with Bahia, where they imported European artifacts and exported sugar, and with Santos, thanks to the marriage of a daughter of Giuseppe Adorno with the English Giacomo Whitehall; when, due to the restrictions placed on trade by Spain and the state of war in Europe, peaceful exchanges became acts of piracy. And there were the exploits of Tomaso Cavendish in Santos itself, and of Giacomo Lancaster in Recife. The events of the European war, and the defeat of the invencible armada (1588) revived the exploits of piracy. In 1595, following the war between France and Spain, the French especially targeted Brazil, and in some places they settled and remained even after the peace of Vervins. But as early as 1594, Giacomo Riffault and Carlo de Vaux had settled in Maranhão, succeeding, following the example of Villegagnon, in capturing the friendship of the natives and the famous cacique Ovirapire. Called back by these pioneers, many other colonists came from France; and among them, with the approval of Henry IV, some gentlemen, such as Daniele de Latouche, lord de la Ravardière, Nicola de Harley and others, who founded, in 1612, the city of São Luiz, capital of the current state of Maranhão. An attempted expulsion, made in 1614 by Girolamo de Albuquerque ended with an armistice, following the uncertain battle of Guaxenduba. But in the following year 1615, Alessandro de Moura managed to drive the French out of Maranhão. It was therefore decided to colonize Brazil from Ceará to Pará, a part which had been neglected until then, in order to avoid new takeovers by foreigners. It, begun in 1616, was marked by the foundation of Belém by Francesco Caldeira Castello Branco. The new state was called Maranhão, and had a separate government from that of Brazil proper: first governor, Francesco Coelho de Carvalho (1621). then neglected. It, begun in 1616, was marked by the foundation of Belém by Francesco Caldeira Castello Branco. The new state was called Maranhão, and had a separate government from that of Brazil proper: first governor, Francesco Coelho de Carvalho (1621). then neglected. It, begun in 1616, was marked by the foundation of Belém by Francesco Caldeira Castello Branco. The new state was called Maranhão, and had a separate government from that of Brazil proper: first governor, Francesco Coelho de Carvalho (1621).
Of much greater importance, due to the many war episodes on sea and land, for the duration of the occupation, and above all for the moral effects, was the Dutch enterprise against Brazil. As early as 1602, an East India Company had been created in Holland which had given proud blows to Spanish trade with Asia. In 1621, as the armistice between Spain and Holland was about to expire, the Company for the West Indies was also established, whose “Council of 19” decided, in 1623, to have northern Brazil occupied, starting operations against the City of Salvatore (Bahia). The following year, a strong team, under the command of Admiral Giacomo Willekens, who had as his second the brave Pietro Heyn, appeared before Bahia and easily occupied it: because the majority of the residents, it seems at the instigation of the bishop Marco Teixeira, she had withdrawn into the interior. The government of the city was taken over by Colonel Van Dorth who, in order to recall the fugitives, made, but in vain, great promises of respect for property, of ample civil and religious freedom, etc. The Bahians, on the other hand, repenting of their retreat and feeling an unsuspected love of country arise in their breasts, gathered together, organized resistance and besieged the lost city. At their head were the resipiscent bishop himself (who actively participated, despite his advanced age, in the organization, but soon succumbed to the fatigue) and the military leaders Lorenzo Cavalcanti and Antonio Cardoso de Barros. Meanwhile, the invaders of Bahia had made the mistake of sending back a large part of the fleet,