Serious concern was aroused by the attitude of the auxiliary troops, who remained loyal to King John. The commander of the Rio garrison, Avilez, entrenched himself with 2000 soldiers on the Morro del Castello, threatening the city. Hostilities were imminent, when the prince personally intervened and, partly with promises, partly with threats, obtained the capitulation of the garrison (13 January) and his departure for Portugal (15 February). More tenacious resistance was put up by the garrison of Bahia, which became the stronghold of the Portuguese reaction: General Madeira was master of all the forts dominating the city, and in August he had some reinforcements from Portugal that enabled him to resist for over a year. In any case, there was the first triumph of the separatist revolution. Moved to Rio, Giuseppe Bonifacio and his brother Martino Alfonso took over the management of affairs as the regent, but not without – new men, as they were, to the practice of government – committing some arbitrations, which would later have serious consequences. On February 16, Giuseppe Bonifacio immediately summoned the representatives of the provinces to collaborate in the reforms, and decreed that no Portuguese law would be effective in Brazil without the exequatur of the prince regent. On May 13, the Senate of the Chamber conferred on the prince the title of “perpetual protector and defender of the Bragile”, and at the same time asked for the convocation of a Constituent Assembly; which was done by decree of June 3. Following the advice of the Andrada, Don Pedro began a tour in the provinces of S. Paolo and Minas, where riots had occurred; and he managed to pacify souls. On his return trip to the capital, on 7 September 1822, the prince was reached by the news that the Lisbon government was repudiating his every act. Then, on the banks of the Ipiranga, he uttered the famous cry: “Independence or death!”. The date remained a national holiday of Brazilian independence. And on October 12, in Rio, in the presence of a large crowd of people, he was the acclaimed constitutional emperor of Brazil. In 1823, when the Madeira garrison was forced to capitulate (2 July), the Maranhão and Pará were reduced to obedience. Thus the whole country recognized imperial authority, except for the Cisplatina Province, formerly Banda Orientale, which, supported by England, became independent, forming the current republic of Uruguay.
According to EZINESPORTS, the reactionary movement in Portugal, led by the infant Don Michele, did not prevent Pedro, in Brazil, from continuing the liberal experiment. He was a man of limited talent, but strongly imbued with the concept of public duty; to which, moreover, he coupled a censurable private conduct, and an obstinate and capricious character at the same time. At the beginning, he suffered the great influence of the Andrada brothers, who resented the opposition for their authoritarian ways and for the personal vendettas they had taken. Indeed, it was said that the famous words that aroused such fierce protests among the patriots had been suggested by them in the opening speech of the Chamber, namely that the emperor “would defend the constitution, should Brazil prove itself worthy”. Another cause of discontent was the project of expulsion of the Portuguese suspected of hostility to the independence of Brazil: which earned the opposition of the Portuguese royalists who had remained in Brazil and who had loyally adhered to the new ideas. A parliamentary coalition was then formed, which led to the fall of the Andrada ministry (July 17, 1823) and the formation of a cabinet composed of moderate royalists, with a tendency in favor of the Portuguese, so much so that prisoners of war were invited to join the army. Brazilian. The Andradas, who had gone to the opposition, led it with extreme violence, in the Chamber and through the press. The struggle of the parties had become so worrying that the emperor decided a great blow: formed, on November 10, a new ministry, with a more pronounced conservative tint, three days later he occupied the Chamber militarily, declared its dissolution, had its deputies expelled. The Andradas and other opposition leaders were arrested, boarded on a ship and sent into exile in France. With a manifesto to the public, the emperor then justified himself by saying that “the salvation of the country, entrusted to him as the perpetual defender of Brazil, had required those measures” and promised a new constitution that he himself had drawn up. In other words, he wanted the country to enjoy free institutions, but only as concessions made by the sovereign; nor did he tolerate his powers being transferred to the people. On November 26, a Council of State was convened for the preparatory work of the new constitution, which, completed in January 1824, and approved, instead of by the Assembly, by the municipal councils of the provinces, it was sworn by the emperor on 25 March. In that same year, there was a revolt in Pernambuco. The revolutionaries, led by Emanuele de Carvalho Paes de Andrade proclaimed the republic and founded the Confederation of the Equator. But attacked by sea and land by Admiral Cochrane and by General Lima and Silva, they were overwhelmed; and the military commissions did, by the will of King Peter, summary justice of many of them. The Paes de Andrade was saved on an English ship. Equator. But attacked by sea and land by Admiral Cochrane and by General Lima and Silva, they were overwhelmed; and the military commissions did, by the will of King Peter, summary justice of many of them. The Paes de Andrade was saved on an English ship. Equator. But attacked by sea and land by Admiral Cochrane and by General Lima and Silva, they were overwhelmed; and the military commissions did, by the will of King Peter, summary justice of many of them. The Paes de Andrade was saved on an English ship.