Argentina Relief and Hydrography

According to NEOVIDEOGAMES.COM, the territory of the Argentine Republic is the second largest in South America and the eighth largest on Earth. It is made up of a continental and an Antarctic sector (whose sovereignty is claimed).


The general characteristics of the orography of Argentina are the presence of mountains in the west and plains in the east, configuring a planimetry that decreases in altitude from west to east. [47] The extreme west is made up of the main section of the Andes mountain range. To the north are the highest sectors of the mountain range, which are also the highest on the continent. There is Mount Aconcagua, which at 6,959 meters above sea level is the highest point in all of America. [47] The Patagonian section of the Andes, on the other hand, has significantly lower peaks than those in the north. In the north, east of the Andes and also in a north-south direction extend the Sierras Subandinas, a series of stepped mountain ranges that make up highly populated valleys. To the south of them are the Sierras Pampeanas, more widely spaced and separated by plains. [47]

The Patagonian plateau is a set of high and arid plateaus and plains, nestled between the Patagonian Andes and the Atlantic Ocean, where it falls steeply into high cliffs overlooking the Argentine Sea. Here is also the deepest depression in all of America: the Carbon Lagoon at 105 meters below sea level. [47] Towards the south, in the provinces of Corrientes and Entre Ríos, they become even lower ridges or hills of sedimentary origin, constituting an undulating topography. [47]

The great Chacopampean plain is a plain with few undulations, subtropical to the north (Gran Chaco) and temperate to the south (Pampas Plain). Drained to a large extent by the Paraná River, its slope is gentle, in a northwest-southeast direction and practically imperceptible, so the rivers that cross it are sinuous, also presenting estuaries and swamps in the Chaco and a large number of lagoons in the Pampa. The monotony of the landscape is only broken by the presence of some mountain systems. [47]


Argentine rivers are classified into 3 basins or slopes: those of the Atlantic slope, those of the Pacific slope and, finally, those belonging to the various endorheic basins in the interior of the country. [48]

The Atlantic slope is the most extensive and is made up of the Plata Basin, the Patagonian System and a series of minor rivers in the province of Buenos Aires. The Plata Basin is the most important, culminating in the estuary of the Río de la Plataand is drained by the Paraná rivers (the largest and most extensive in the country), Uruguay and the various tributaries of these, highlighting the [[ Paraguay ]] , the Pilcomayo, the Bermejo, the Salado and the Iguazú. The Patagonian system is made up of non-native rivers, fed by the melting of the Andes. The Colorado River, the Negro River, the Chubut and the Santa Cruz River stand out for their flow. [48]

The Pacific slope is the smallest. Integrated by short rivers, fed by the thaws and rains of the Patagonian Andes, such as the Manso in Rio Negro and the Futaleufú in Chubut.

In the center and west of the territory there are several endorheic basins, composed of rivers of variable flow that are lost to the ground by evaporation or infiltration or drain into interior or saline lagoons. The Desaguadero basin, which groups the Cuyan rivers, and the Mar Chiquita lagoon, where the Dulce, Primero and Segundo rivers flow, stand out.

The Argentine lake basins are found mainly in Patagonia, as a consequence of the glacial action that formed them. Lakes Nahuel Huapi, Viedma and Argentino stand out. In the Chaco-Pampean plain there are a large number of fresh and salt water lagoons, and on the coast marshy areas such as the Iberá estuaries. [48] The largest Argentine lagoon is Mar Chiquita, in the province of Córdoba.

The country’s water resources also include the extensive glacial fields of the Andes, such as the Perito Moreno, and groundwater from aquifers, such as the Puelche and the Guaraní. The hydroelectric use of the rivers has led to the formation of several reservoirs, such as Yacyretá in Paraná, Salto Grande in Uruguay and El Chocón in Limay.


Due to its latitudinal breadth and its variety of reliefs, it has a great variety of climates. In general, the predominant climate is temperate, although it extends to a subtropical climate in the north and a subpolar climate in the extreme south. The north of the country is characterized by very hot and humid summers, with mild and dry winters, being subject to periodic droughts. The center of the country has hot summers with rains and storms, and cool winters. The southern regions have hot summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous areas. The highest elevations in all latitudes are those that experience colder conditions, with an arid climate and montane level.

Argentine Relief and Hydrography