Argentina Government and Politics

The Constitution of 1853 established a representative, republican and federal system of government, which has been maintained by all the constitutional reforms carried out since then. Argentina was formed by the federative union of the provinces that emerged after the dissolution of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and by the incorporation of those that were constituted from the National Territories. The Constitution in force today is the one that result of the 1994 Constitutional Convention. The federal government authorities have their headquarters in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, which is currently the Capital of the Republic, denominations used in the National Constitution and in the laws, but not formally called the Federal Capital.

Division of powers

Executive power

The executive power is held by a citizen with the title of President of the Argentine Nation, who is elected by direct suffrage in a double round together with the candidate for vice president. The second electoral round is carried out between the two most voted options if in the first none had obtained more than 45% of the valid votes or, if having obtained the most voted option between 40% and 45%, there was a difference with the second option less than 10%. [22] The president and vice president serve four years in their terms and can be immediately reelected for one more term. [23] [24]

Legislative power

Legislative power is exercised by the Congress of the Argentine Nation, made up of two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies brings together the direct representatives of the population. They are elected by the proportional representation system(D’Hondt system), last four years in their mandate and are renewed by halves every two years, being able to be reelected indefinitely. They are elected taking as their sole district each province and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, where they vote, for a list of all the candidates of each political party or electoral alliance, for the positions that each district puts in dispute in that election. [25] The Senate for its part brings together the representatives of the 23 provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, each one corresponding to two senators for the majority and one for the minority, making a total of 72 members. They are elected by direct vote, last six years in their mandate and are renewed by thirds every two years, being able to be reelected indefinitely. [26] The Congress of the Argentine Nation is in charge of the formation and enactment of federal laws; In addition, it is in charge of the sanction of the civil, criminal, commercial, labor, aeronautical and mining legal codes, among others. [27] It has an autonomous constitutional body for technical assistance: the General Auditor of the Nation, in charge of the control of legality, management and auditing of all the activity of the public administration. [28]

Power of attorney

The judiciary is headed by a Supreme Court of Justice made up of five legal judges appointed by the President of the Nation with the agreement of the Senate, which requires a two-thirds majority for this. [29] The lower courts are in charge of resolving conflicts regulated by federal legislation throughout the country (federal courts) and, also, by common legislation in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (national courts). The appointment of judges is made by the President of the Nation with the agreement of the Senate, on the basis of a shortlist made up of candidates selected in public competition by the Council of the Magistracy, a multisectoral body, which has direct control of the judges and the administration of the judiciary. [30]

Provincial governments

In the Argentine Republic, a country located in South America according to PAYHELPCENTER.COM, there are 23 provinces that, due to the federal system adopted by the Constitution, are autonomous and maintain all power not explicitly delegated to the federal government.All provinces have a republican and representative constitution that organizes their own executive and legislative powers and judicial, and regulates the municipal autonomy regime. The provinces can enact laws on non-federal issues, but the main common laws (civil, commercial, criminal, labor, social security and mining) are reserved to the National Congress.

In all provinces, the executive branch is in charge of a governor who lasts for four years and who, in general, can be re-elected. Legislative power in some provinces is exercised by a unicameral legislature and in others by a bicameral legislature. All provinces have a judicial branch with its corresponding provincial Superior Court and courts in charge of resolving conflicts governed by common law (civil, criminal, commercial, labor, local administrative). The Autonomous City of Buenos Aires has a special autonomy regime without becoming a province. A law passed in 1880 He confirmed it as the capital of the Republic and federalized it, separating it from the Province of Buenos Aires. Its political organization also has a republican Constitution that establishes a government divided into three branches (executive, legislative and judicial) and a decentralization regime in communes.

External relationships

Argentina, along with Brazil (its main trading partner), Uruguay, Paraguay (temporarily suspended until new democratic elections are held in that country that deviated from the democratic cause after the parliamentary coup d’état that in June 2012 removed Fernando from power Lugo [33] [34] ) and Venezuela (incorporated in June 2012 [35] ), is part of Mercosur and the Union of South American Nations.

Argentina maintains a sovereignty dispute over the Malvinas, South Sandwich, Aurora and South Georgia islands, usurped by the United Kingdom in the 19th century, along with their surrounding maritime spaces. [36] Likewise, it claims almost 1 million square kilometers in Antarctica that are not recognized by another country, except partially by Chile. During 2006 litigation began with Uruguay due to the start of work on a pulp mill of the Finnish company Metsä-Botnia in the Uruguayan town of Fray Bentos. Argentina has sued Uruguay before the International Court of Justice arguing that the installation of the pulp mills is polluting and has been carried out in violation of the Uruguay River Statute. [37]

Argentine Politics