According to EXTRAREFERENCE.COM, Argentine Republic is a sovereign State, organized as a representative and federal Republic, located in the extreme southeast of America. The territory is divided into 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the nation’s capital and seat of the federal Government. According to the World Bank, its nominal Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the 30th most important in the world.
Its American continental territory, which covers a large part of the Southern Cone, limits to the north with Bolivia and Paraguay, to the northeast with Brazil, to the west and south with Chile and to the east with Uruguay and the Atlantic Ocean. The 25 of maypole of 1810 was deposed the last Spanish viceroy who ruled from Buenos Aires, organized the first meeting of government and the 9 of July of 1816 was formally proclaimed in Tucumán its independence as a free and sovereign country.
The first settlers of the current Argentine territory date back to the Paleolithic. Among the indigenous peoples, hunters and gatherers inhabited Patagonia, the Pampa and the Chaco; and the farmers were installed in the northwest, whose, the Sierras de Córdoba and, later, in Mesopotamia, Argentina. Tastil, in the north, was the largest pre-Columbian city located in present-day Argentine territory, with a population of 2,000 residents.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Inca Empire conquered part of the current provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca, the extreme west of the province of Tucumán, the western part of the provinces of La Rioja and San Juan, the northwest of the province of Mendoza and, probably, the north of Santiago del Estero, incorporating their territories to Collasuyo, which was the southern part of the Tahuantinsuyo or regions of the Inca Empire.
Traditionally, the conquest is attributed to the Inca Túpac Yupanqui. Several lordships in the region, such as the omaguacas, the atacamas, the huarpes, the diaguitas and others, tried to resist, but the Incas managed to dominate them, transferring to their territories the mitimaes or colonists deported from the chichas tribes, who lived in what is the southwest of the current Bolivian territory. Others, such as the sanavirones, the lule-tonocoté, and the comechingones, successfully resisted the Inca invasion and remained independent dominions.
The Sanctí Spíritus fort was the first Spanish settlement, installed in 1527 near the current city of Rosario.  The cities of Santiago de Estero (1553), Cordoba (1573) and Buenos Aires (1536 / 1580) were the basis of the colonial establishment that prevailed in the northern half of the current Argentine, subject territory to the authority of the crown Española (the government of the Río de la Plata).
From the progressive miscegenation and having extensive livestock farming as one of its fundamental economic bases, a population that would be paradigmatic and later decisive in the independence struggle emerged clearly from the seventeenth century: that of the gauchos.
During most of the colonial period, the Argentine territory depended on the Viceroyalty of Peru, until in 1776, during the reign of Carlos III of Spain, it became part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.
The city of Buenos Aires was designated as its capital with the idea of better resisting an eventual Portuguese attack and to have easier access to Spain through Atlantic navigation. 
In 1780 there was a great indigenous uprising with its epicenter in Cuzco, led by the Inca Túpac Amaru II, which ranged from present-day Argentine territory to present-day Colombian territory. Much of Patagonia and the pampas remained under the control of different peoples Indigenous people: mainly Tehuelches and Mapuches in Patagonia and Ranqueles in the Pampean plain until the last quarter of the 19th century. Likewise, the territories of the Chaco region were not colonized by Europeans, but remained inhabited by indigenous peoples such as the Tobas, mocovíes, pilagás and wichís until the beginning of the 20th century.
In the years 1806 and 1807 the English invasions took place, and, in both, Santiago de Liniers led the troops that expelled the British forces. The first was commanded by troops from the Banda Oriental and the second was leading troops from the Fixed Regiment of Buenos Aires and militia battalions made up of numerous Creoles, both from Buenos Aires and from the Interior (mainly from Asunción del Paraguay and Córdoba), indigenous and even black slaves.
The popular will precipitated the dismissal of Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte for, the continuation, to elect Santiago de Liniers as viceroy, converted into a hero of the reconquest and defense. 
The main leaders of these militias quickly became a new power elite in the city of Buenos Aires, entering as members of the council, until then made up exclusively of Spaniards.
Although Liniers still ruled in the name of Spain, the removal of a viceroy by popular pressure was an unprecedented event in the history of America. Both this fact and the defeat of the British armies, gave a great prestige to Buenos Aires, which gained the character of an older sister before the other provinces.
In 1810, the people of Buenos Aires started the May Revolution, which overthrew and expelled Viceroy Cisneros, electing in its place a government junta made up mostly of Creoles that gave rise to the War of Independence of the United Provinces of the Río de la Río silver against colonial Spain (1810- 1824).
The Assembly of 1813 passed numerous laws aimed at ensuring independence. He was sent to abolish the coat of arms of Spain, and the effigy of the ancient monarchs was deleted from the currency, replacing it with the seal of the United Provinces. Likewise, the Assembly declared a holiday on May 25, and gave official character to the hymn of the nascent nation, written by Vicente López y Planes and put to music by the Catalan maestro Blas Parera. 
The 9 of July of 1816, in the city of San Miguel de Tucuman, a congress of deputies from the provinces of the northwest and central west of the country and Buenos Aires, along with some deputies exiled from the Alto Peru, proclaimed independence of the United Provinces.